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Cornea & External Diseases




















Non Infectious
Punctal plug insertion to the lower punctum for reversible punctal occlusion.
Punctal Occlusion

  • Has been effectively used as an adjunct to ocular surface lubricants in the treatment of dry-eye disorders by:
    • Preventing tear drainage
    • Increasing natural tear film volume
    • Decreasing tear film osmolarity
    • Prolonging the effect of instilled artificial lubrication drops
  • Several ways may be chosen to close the punctum:
    • Lower puncta are usually closed first.
    • Reversible punctal occlusion may be achieved by punctal plugs insertion. The plugs are usually made of silicone material.
    • Irreversible or permanent punctal occlusion may be achieved by cauterization of the punctum.
  • Side effects:
    • Plug extrusion.
    • Permanent punctal occlusion due to tissue scarring or plug migration into the canaliculus.
    • Spontaneous punctum recanalization after cauterization of the punctum is possible.

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