Vitreous & Retina




















Macular Diseases
Hard exudates in the posterior pole of an eye with diabetic macular edema.

  • Hard exudates can be seen in any conditions that are associated with chronic vascular leakage , such as:
    • Diabetic retinopathy
    • Hypertensive retinopathy
    • Coat's disease
    • Capillary hemangioma of the retina
    • Choroidal neovascularization
    • Retinal arterial macroaneurysm
  • Mechanism:
    • Increased vascular permeability allowing the leakage of fluid and lipoprotein into the retina resulting in thickening of the macula
    • Resorption of the edema commonly results in precipitation of lipid residues within the outer plexiform (Henle's) layer
  • Clinical features:
    • Symptoms: various degree of decreased vision if involving the macula
    • Signs:
      • Discrete white-yellow lipid deposits in the posterior pole
      • Commonly seen in a circinate pattern peripheral to the areas of leakage
      • May present as large, confluent exudation
      • Macular star and/or circumpapillary hard exudates can be seen in Leber's stellate neuro-retinitis or end-stage hypertensive retinopathy
  • Management: treat the underlying diseases.

Copyright © 2003 Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. All rights reserved. All material published on this website is the property of Digital Reference of Ophthalmology and cannot be duplicated without permission.
Home Search Home Search